Squat Theory and Execution
Written by ???Arioch???
The squat should be a standard exercise in any lifters program. Whether the goal
is strength, hypertrophy (increase in muscle size), increased accelerative
ability, or a heightened vertical jump, the squat is the tool for the task. In
addition to working the muscles of the legs, hips, lower back, abdomen, and
obliques, the demands of squatting should stimulate a growth response from the
body that will carry over into strength and size increases in other areas.
The basic technique of the squat consists in placing a loaded barbell across the
shoulders, then bending at the hips and knees, descending into the bottom
position, ???the hole,??? and returning to an erect position. We will examine the
squat from the deck up.
Stance. This varies from individual to individual, but one thing is necessary
for all who wish progress: you must keep your feet flat on the deck at all
times. The center of gravity may be maintained over the center of the foot, but
it is generally best to push through the heels. This will help in maintaining
bar position and help eliminate a small degree of forward lean. To achieve this,
some people find it necessary to curls the toes upward while squatting, forcing
their heels flat. The feet should be placed at least shoulder width apart, and
some individuals may best utilize a stance nearly twice shoulder width. The
narrower stance tends to place more direct emphasis on the quads, and creates a
longer path for the bar to travel. The wider stance (often called ???sumo???) tends
to be favored by many powerlifters, although some have enjoyed great success
with a relatively narrow stance. The sumo stance place more emphasis on the
adductors and hamstrings. As a rule of thumb, lifters with longer legs will need
a wider stance than shorter individuals. However, there are exceptions. A wider
stance will tend to recruit both the adductors and buttocks to a greater degree
than a narrow stance. (1)
The shins should be a close to vertical as possible throughout the entire
movement. This lessens the opening of the knee joint, and reduces the shearing
force as well. By reducing the workload that the knee joint is required to
handle, more of the work is accomplished by the larger muscles around the hip
joint. For powerlifters, this decreases the distance one must travel with the
bar, as the further the knee moves forward, the lower the hips must descend to
There are several schools of thought on squat depth. Many misinformed
individuals caution against squatting below parallel, stating that this is
hazardous to the knees. Nothing could be further from the truth. (2) Stopping at
or above parallel places direct stress on the knees, whereas a deep squat will
transfer the load to the hips,(3) which are capable of handling a greater amount
of force than the knees should ever be exposed to. Studies have shown that the
squat produces lower peak tibeo-femoral(stress at the knee joint) compressive
force than both the leg press and the leg extension.(4) For functional strength,
one should descend as deeply as possible, and under control. (yes, certain
individuals can squat in a ballistic manner, but they are the exception rather
than the rule). The further a lifter descends, the more the hamstrings are
recruited, and proper squatting displays nearly twice the hamstring involvement
of the leg press or leg extension. (5,6) and as one of the functions of the
hamstring is to protect the patella tendon (the primary tendon involved in knee
extension) during knee extension through a concurrent firing process, the
greatest degree of hamstring recruitment should provide the greatest degree of
protection to the knee joint. (7) When one is a powerlifter, the top surface of
the legs at the hip joint must descend to a point below the top surface of the
legs at the knee joint.
Knee injuries are one of the most commonly stated problems that come from
squatting, however, this is usually stated by those who do not know how to
squat. A properly performed squat will appropriately load the knee joint, which
improves congruity by increasing the compressive forces at the knee joint.
(8,(9) which improves stability, protecting the knee against shear forces. As
part of a long-term exercise program, the squat, like other exercises, will lead
to increased collagen turnover and hypertrophy of ligaments. (10,11) At least
one study has shown that international caliber weightlifters and powerlifters
experience less clinical or symptomatic arthritis. (12) Other critics of the
squat have stated that it decreases the stability of the knees, yet nothing
could be further from the truth. Studies have shown that the squat will increase
knee stability by reducing joint laxity, as well as decrease anterior-posterior
laxity and translation. (13,14) The squat is, in fact, being used as a
rehabilitation exercise for many types of knee injuries, including ACL repair.
One of the most, if not the most critical factor in squatting is spinal
position. It is incredibly important not to round the back. This can lead to
problems with the lower back, and upper back as well. The back should be arched,
and the scapulae retracted, to avoid injury. This position must be maintained
throughout the entire lift, as rounding on the way up is even more common than
rounding on the way down, and people who make this mistake are the ones who
perpetuate the ???squats are bad for your back??? myth. Furthermore, spinal position
is essential to maintaining a proper combined center of gravity (CCOG). The
farther one leans forward or, even worse, rounds the back, the more strain the
erectors are forced to bear, and the less the abdominals can contribute to the
lift. To say nothing of the fact that the greater the lean, the greater the
shearing force placed on the vertebrae. Proper spinal alignment will assist in
ensuring that the majority of the force the spine must bear is compressive in
nature, as it should be. Another reason for descending below parallel is that
the sacrum undergoes a process known as nutation (it tilts forward, relative to
the two ilia on either side of it). At only 90 degrees of knee flexion, the
sacrum is still tilted backward, which inhibits proper firing of the erectors
and gluteus maximus and minimus. Going through a full range of motion completes
the rotation of the sacrum and allows maximal muscular recruitment.
Squats are bad for your back??? is yet another cry of the weak of both leg and
spirit. While an improperly performed squat can cause problems, so can
improperly performed barbell curl, yet many of the people who use the squat rack
only to curl do not seem to have a problem strengthening their elbow flexors.
While the squat can be hazardous to the back among the untrained who often
incline the torso to an unsafe degree, as well as round the back, skilled
athletes have been shown to minimize trunk segment torques by maintaining a more
erect posture. (16) It has been positively shown that maintaining an upright
torso during the squatting motion reduces both spinal compression and shear
forces. (17) Several studies have shown that weightlifters experience not only
less back injury and pain that many other athletes, but often even less than
inactive individuals, which clearly displays that a proper weight training
program, which includes squatting, is beneficial in avoiding injury. (18,19)
The placement of the bar is another very important consideration when squatting.
If one places the bar high on the traps, more emphasis will be placed on the
quads, and a low bar squat recruits more of the lower back and hamstrings, by
virtue of back extension, simply because the lower the bar is placed, the
greater the degree of forward lean. Even when high bar squatting, the bar should
NEVER be placed on the neck. This is far more stress than the cervical vertebrae
should be forced to bear. When a powerlifter squats with a low bar position, the
bar should be placed no lower than three centimeters below the top of the
anterior deltoids. For other lifters, comfort and flexibility will go a long way
towards determining bar positioning. When gripping the bar, at first it is best
to place your hands as close together as possible, to maintain tension in the
upper back, and to avoid any chance of the bar slipping. As a general rule, the
lower you place the bar, the wider your hands will have to be. Anything placed
between the bar and the lifter, such as a pad or towel, decreases the force of
friction and increases the chance of the bar slipping. It is to avoid injuries
that this practice is banned in competition. Also, this will artificially raise
the lifter???s CCOG, which makes it harder to balance under a heavy load.
Look slightly upward when squatting, to avoid rounding the upper back. The
movement should be initiated from the hips, by pushing the glutes back, not
down. This will assist in keeping the shins vertical. On the way down, keep the
torso as close to vertical as possible, continue to push the hips back, and push
the knees out to the sides, avoiding the tendency to allow them to collapse
inward. The manner in which the lifter descends will greatly influence the
manner in which the ascent is made. When the necessary depth is achieved, begin
ascending by pushing the head back, and continue to concentrate on pushing the
One of the most common mistakes made while squatting, or performing any exercise
for that matter, is improper breathing. At first, the lifter should inhale on
the way down, and exhale on the way up. Many advanced lifters will take several
large breaths, hold it all in on the way down, and then exhale forcefully at
their sticking point on the way up. This technique, known as the ???Partial
Valsalva,??? requires practice like any other.
There are many other types of squats, but all of them are secondary to the squat
itself, which is appropriately termed the ???King of Exercises.???
The front squat is performed in a similar manner, but the bar is held in the
clean position, across the anterior deltoids, not the clavicles. The hands
should be slightly wider than shoulder width, and the elbows should be elevated
as much as possible. The bar is maintained as high as possible by elevating the
elbows. This allows the lifter to maintain a more upright posture, and increases
the emphasis on the glutes, while lessening the involvement of the lower back.
This exercise may allow a lifter who lacks the flexibility required to perform a
full squat achieve a reasonable depth while improving flexibility. The front
squat will place far more emphasis on the quadriceps muscles and less
recruitment of the hamstrings takes place. 7 (20) When comparing the squat to
other exercises, it is important to note that the squat causes less compressive
force to the knee joint, and greater hamstring activation, than both the leg
press and the leg extension. (21)
Another popular type of squatting exercise is the split squat (???lunge???). In this
type of squat, the legs are placed at approximately shoulder width, but one foot
is out in front of the athlete and one is placed to the rear, as if a lifter has
just completed the jerk portion of the clean and jerk. The athlete descends by
bending the front leg until the knee is slightly forward of the toes. The shin
of the front leg should be ten degrees past perpendicular to the floor. It is
important to maintain an upright posture when doing so. As when squatting,
co-activation of the hamstring serves to protect the knee joint during flexion,
(22) which is very important as often a greater degree of flexion will occurring
when performing the split squat.
Certain misinformed and so-called ???personal trainers??? will have people squat in
a smith machine, which is, quite simply, an idea both hideous and destructive.
This is often done under the misguided ???squat this way until you are strong
enough to perform a regular squat??? premise. Even if one overlooks the obvious
fact that it is better to learn to do something right than build bad habits from
the start, there are numerous other factors to be considered. The smith machine
stabilizes the bar for the lifter, which does not teach the skill of balancing
the bar, balance being important to any athlete, as well as the fact that free
weight squatting strengthens the synergists which goes a long way to preventing
injuries. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link, and the smith machine
leaves far too many weak links. To say nothing of the fact that free weights
provide a greater transfer of functional strength than machines.
(23)Furthermore, the bar moves straight up and down, and very few people squat
in this manner, which means that the smith machine does not fit a lifters
optimal strength curve. (24) The smith machine also requires that the lifter
either squats with his torso much closer to vertical than would be done with a
real squat, which mechanically decreases the involvement of both the spinal
erectors and the hamstrings. While this would be fine if it was done by the
lifters muscular control, when the smith machine does this it is disadvantageous
to the lifter by virtue of decreasing the ability of the hamstrings to protect
the knee joint. Another mistake made, aside from simply using it in the first
place, is allow the knees to drift forward over the toes, the chance of which is
increased by the smith machine. As was previously mentioned, this greatly
increases the shearing force on the knees. This from a device touted by the
ignorant as ???safe.???
There is a great debate about the use of belts when squatting, some sources
insist that you must wear one, while others state quite the opposite. It is
worth noting that there are plusses and minuses to wearing one. Using a proper
belt while squatting can serve to increase intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which
will serve to stabilize the spinal column, reducing compressive forces acting
upon the spine and reducing back muscle forces. (25) However, muscle activity of
the trunk appears to be significantly reduced when using a weight belt, which
can lead to the muscles of the trunk receiving a less than optimal stimulus when
using a belt. (26) Other proponents of belt use have shown that the use of a
properly designed power belt may improve a lifter's explosive power by
increasing the speed of the movement without compromising the joint range of
motion or overall lifting technique. (27)
There are numerous methods of utilizing the squat in any athlete???s training
program. While a variety of rep and set ranges are optimal for a bodybuilder who
wishes to maximize hypertrophy, an athlete???s must carefully plan a training
program to meet their goals. Even though squatting will lead to gains in size,
strength, and jumping ability, the more specific the program, the greater the
results. When an untrained subject begins lifting, numerous programs produce
gains in practically all areas, but this changes rapidly, with limited progress
being made unless something is altered. (28)
To utilize the squat to gain in size is both simple and complex. Individuals
will respond to a variety of rep ranges in different manners based on fiber
type, training history, biomechanics, injuries, etc. Bodybuilders, who are
concerned exclusively with gains in size, should squat heavy, as fast-twitch
muscle fibers have the greatest potential for hypertrophy. However, sarcoplasmic
hypertrophy (growth of muscle tissue outside of the sarcoplasmic reticulum) will
contribute to overall muscular size, and is obtained by training with lighter
weights and higher reps. Rate of training is once again an individual decision,
but as a general rule, the greater the volume of training, including time under
tension (TUT) per workout, the longer one must wait before recovery is
optimized, allowing supercompensation to take place. A word of caution about
performing higher repetitions while squatting: As the set progresses, the degree
of forward lean increases. While this is desirable to increase the stress on the
hamstrings, it takes the emphasis off of the quadriceps, as well as increases
the risk of injury. (29)
An athlete wishing to improve his vertical jump should not only squat, but
perform a variety of assistance work specific to both improving squatting
strength as well as specifically improving jumping skill. As jumping requires a
great expenditure of force in a minimal amount of time, exercises such as
squatting should be performed to increase muscle power, as muscle
cross-sectional area significantly correlates to force output. (30) When wishing
to increase one???s power through squatting to assist in the vertical jump, one
must train to generate a high degree of force.(31 ,32 ,33 ) This is done by
squatting a dynamic manner, where one is attempting to generate a large amount
of power while using submaximal weights. This has been shown to provide a great
training stimulus for improving the vertical jump. (34) A program consisting of
a session once-weekly heavy squatting, ballistic lifting, and plyometric
training, with each being performed during a separate workout, should provide
maximal stimulus while allowing maximal recovery and supercompensation.(35,36)
When training to improve one???s overall squatting ability, expressed as a
one-repetition maximum (1rm), once again a variety of programs may be utilized.
The most common is a simple periodized program where, over time, the training
weight is increased and the number of repetitions decreases. This sort of
program is utilized by both Weightlifters and Powerlifters alike. A sample
periodized program is included in Appendix B. Some sources state that you must
train to failure, while others state that one should train until form begins to
break down, leaving a small reserve of strength but reducing the risk of injury.
It should be stated that there is no evidence that indicates training to failure
produces a greater training stimulus than traditional volume training.
Far and away the most complicated, and controversial training program is the
conjugate training method. Using this method one trains to develop maximal
acceleration in the squat during one workout, and in another workout (72 hours
later) generate maximum intensity in a similar exercise to the squat. This is
based on an incredibly lengthy study by A. S. Prelepin, one of the greatest
sports physiologists of the former Soviet Union. (37) This method also uses the
practice of compensatory acceleration, where an athlete attempts to generate as
much force as possible, by not only generating maximal acceleration, but by
continuing to attempt to increase acceleration as the lifter???s leverage
improves. The addition of chains or bands can increase the workload as well as
force the athlete to work harder to accelerate the bar. Utilizing this system,
the squat is trained for low repetitions (2) but a high number of sets (10 ???
12), with training intensities being 50 - 70% of the athlete???s 1rm. Rest periods
are short (45 - 75 seconds), and the squats are often performed on a box, which
breaks up the eccentric-concentric chain, and inhibits the stretch reflex,
forcing the athlete to generate the initial acceleration out of the bottom of
the lift without the benefit of the elasticity of the muscle structure.
During the second workout, an exercise which taxes the muscles recruited when
squatting, but not an actual squat, is performed for very low repetitions (1-3,
usually one). The goal on this day is to improve neuromuscular coordination by
increased motor unit recruiting, increased rate coding, and motor unit
synchronization. This allows the athlete to continue to generate maximal
intensity week after week, but by rotating exercises regularly optimal
performance is maintained. For one microcycle, a squat-like exercise is
performed, such as a box squat, rack squat, or front squat is performed, then
the athlete switches to a different type of exercise, such as good mornings,
performed standing, seated, from the rack, etc. for another microcycle, then
switches exercises again, often to a pulling type exercise such as deadlifts
with a variety of stances, from pins, from a platform, or any number of other
variations. Once again, chains or bands may be added to increase the workload. A
sample training program is included in Appendix B, and a variety of maximal
effort exercises can be found in Appendix C.
Assistance work for the squat is of the utmost importance. The primary muscles
which contribute to the squat, in no particular order, are the quadriceps,
hamstrings, hip flexors/extensors, abdominals, and spinal erectors. When an
athlete fails to rise from the bottom of a squat, it is important to note that
not all of the muscles are failing simultaneously. Rather, a specific muscle
will fail, and the key to progress is identifying the weakness, then
strengthening it. A partial list of assistance exercises is provided in Appendix
D. While it is impossible to simply state that if x happens when squatting, it
is muscle y that is causing the problem, some general guidelines follow. If a
lifter fails to rise from the bottom of a squat, it generally indicates either a
weakness in the hip flexors and extensors, or a lack of acceleration due to
inhibition of the golgi tendon organ (no stretch reflex ??? train with lighter
weight and learn to accelerate if this is the case). If an athlete has a
tendency to lean forward and dump the bar overhead, it generally indicates
either weak hamstrings or erectors. If an athlete has trouble stabilizing the
bar, or maintaining an upright posture, it is often due to a weakness in the
The above factors assume that proper technique is being maintained. If this is
not the case, no amount of specific work will overcome this problem. Drop the
weight and concentrate on improving skill, which is far more important than
training the ego, and less likely to lead to injury.
Safety is the key issue when squatting, or performing any lift. With a few
simple precautions, practically anyone may learn to squat, and do so quite
effectively. The rewards are well worth the effort. Squat heavy, squat often,
and above all, squat safely.
Appendix A: Anatomical References
Trapezius (i): The lower half of the trapezius ('traps 3' and 'traps 4') assist
in retracting the scapulae and maintaining proper alignment of the cervical and
thoracic vertebrae. The Trapezius also assist in maintaining the head in an
erect position. This serves to secure the bar in a stable position on the upper
back, as well as maintain a proper arch in the upper back (thoracic vertebrae).
The Levator Anguli Scapulae, Rhomboideus major(b), and Rhomboideus minor all
function to retract the scapulae, maintain alignment of the cervical vertebrae,
retract the scapulae, and maintain proper position of the shoulder girdle while
support a fixed load (barbell). Levator not shown, inferior to the scapulae(g).
These muscles are of the utmost importance in maintaining the bar position while
Latissimus dorsai: These wide muscles which cover the lumbar and lower half of
the dorsal regions will contract isometrically to avoid compression of the
shoulder girdle. They assist in maintaining rigidity in the spinal column, which
allow proper arching (lordosis) of the spine while squatting.
The Erector spinae(1), Sacro-lumbalis(b), Longissimus Dorsi(2_, and Spinalis
Dorsi(3) all serve to maintain the spine in the erect posture. They also serve
to bend the trunk backward when it is required to counterbalance a weight such
as when squatting. Numerous smaller muscles function to stabilize the spinal
column during back extension, by contracting to maintain vertebral alignment. It
should be noted that during a heavy squat, the erectors and their synergists
will be quite heavily taxed. Due to the need for the athlete-barbell system to
maintain a proper combined center of gravity (CCOG), there will be a certain
amount of forward inclination of the trunk taking place, to maintain barbell
position over the athlete???s base of support (the foot).
The abdominals: The Rectus(f), Obliques internus(c ), Obliques externus(b),
Transersalis(d), Pyramidalis, and Quadratus lumborum all contract isometrically
to support the trunk under a compressive load. Pyramidalis (not shown) is a
small triangular muscle sheathed within the base of the rectus.
Serratus posticus superior and inferior: Both assist in maintaining rigidity in
the torso by contracting isometrically to support the chest cavity as well as
providing support for the lumbar vertebrae. Figure Four: Serratus superior (g).
Not shown, inferior, below superior.
The intercostals: External intercostals(1), Internal intercostals, Infracostals,
Triangularis sterni, and Leytores costarum all contract isometrically to
stabilize the ribcage under a compressive load. Only externals are indicated.
Other muscles in this group are inferior to the Externals.
The Glutei function to adduct the thigh. The Gluteus maximus(c ) and medius(2)
rotate the thigh outward, and the minimus(1) rotates it inward. The Gluteus
maximus extends the femur and brings the bent thigh into a line with the body.
The Gluteus medius and minimus flex the thigh. The Glutei also function to
achieve an erect posture after squatting.
The hamstrings, which consist of the Biceps Femoris(g), Semimembranosus(i), and
Semitendinosis(h), serve to flex the knee. They also function to extend the
torso, such as when rising from a squatting position. The Semitendinosus and, to
a lesser extent, the Semimembranosus, assist in rotating the thigh inward.
The Illiacus(o), Psoas magnus(c), and Psoas parvus(q) (often called the
illio-psoas muscle group), acting from above, flex the thigh upon the pelvis,
and at the same time rotate the femur outward. Acting from below, the femur
being fixed, the muscles of both sides bend the lumbar portion of the spine and
pelvis upon the femur. They also serve to maintain the erect position by
supporting the spine and pelvis upon the femur.
The Quadriceps function to extend the knee joint, while the Sartorius flexes the
leg upon the thigh and the thigh upon the pelvis. Rectus (1), Vastus Externus
(2), Vastus Internus (???medialis")(3), Sartorius (c ). When the knee is bent the
Sartorious assists the Semitendinosis in rotating the tibia inward. The Rectus
assists the Psoas and Iliacus in supporting the pelvis upon the trunk upon the
The Pectineus(f), the Adductor Brevis (g), the Adductor Longus (h), and the
Adductor Magnus (not shown, inferior to the other adductors) powerfully adduct
(move inward) the thigh. The Pectineus and Adductor Brevis and Longus assist the
Psoas and Illiacus in flexing the thigh upon the pelvis. The Gracilis (I)
assists the Sartorius in flexing the leg and rotating it inward, it is also an
adductor of the thigh.
Appendix B: Sample Training Programs
Basic Periodized Program:
Week One: Squat 50% 1rm, three sets, 10 reps.
Week Two: Squat 55% 1rm, three sets, 10 reps.
Week Three: Squat 60% 1rm, three sets, 8 reps.
Week Four: Squat 65% 1 rm, three sets, 8 reps.
Week Five: Squat 70% 1 rm, three sets, 8 reps.
Week Six: Squat 75% 1 rm, three sets, 5 reps.
Week Seven: Squat 80% 1rm, three sets, 5 reps.
Week Eight: Squat 85% 1rm, three sets, 3 reps.
Week Nine: Squat 90% 1rm, three sets, 3 reps.
Week Ten: Squat 95% 1 rm, three sets, 2 reps.
Week Eleven: Squat 100% 1rm, three sets, 1 rep.
Week Twelve: Squat 105% of previous 1 repetition maximum for one repetition.
Basic Conjugate Training Program:
Each workout is performed once a week for a three week micro-cycle.
Day One: Maximal Acceleration:
Box squat: 10 sets, 2 reps, 50% 1rm.
Box squat: 2 sets, 2 reps, 60% 1rm.
Arched Back Good Mornings: 3 sets, 5 reps.
Reverse Hyper Extensions: 3 sets, 8 reps.
Russian Twist: 3 sets, 10 reps.
Seated Calf Raise: 3 sets, 15 reps.
Day Two: Maximal Effort, performed 72 hours later:
Front Squat from low box: 1rm.
Glute-Ham Raise: 3 sets, 5 reps.
Reverse Hyper Extensions: 3 sets, 10 reps.
Weighted Sit Ups: 3 sets, 8 reps.
Calf Raise: 3 sets: 10 reps.
Repeat for three weeks (total) and then switch to:
Box Squat: 10 sets, 2 reps, 55% 1rm.
Box Squat: 2 sets, 2 reps, 65% of 1rm.
Pull Throughs: 3 sets, 12 reps.
Reverse Hyper Extensions: 3 sets, 6 reps.
Hanging Leg Raise: 4 sets, 12 reps.
Donkey Calf Raise: 3 sets, 8 reps.
Sumo Deadlift with plates 6 off floor (lower by 2??? each week for the next two
Split Squat: 3 sets, 5 reps.
Reverse Hyper Extensions: 3 sets, 10 reps.
Weighted Side Bend: 3 sets, 10 reps.
Calf Press: 3 sets, 10 reps.
After three weeks, again rotate exercises.
Appendix C: Partial List of Maximal Effort
Low Box Squat
High Box Squat
(either lift may be performed with one of the following:
Cambered Squat Bar)
Safety Squat Bar)
Chains or bands may be added.
Low Box Front Squat (modified as above)
Good Morning Squat
Overhead Squat (may be performed off a box, with a variety of stances.
(either lift may be performed from a variety of pin heights in the power rack)
Deadlift from platform
Trap Bar Deadlift
Snatch Grip Deadlift (may be done from various heights)
Round Back (Only for advanced lifters. If you are not sure, you are not
Good mornings on floor with legs outstretched
(all may be modified as per the squat)
Good mornings can also be performed to various pin heights in the power rack.
Appendix D: Partial List of Assistance Exercises
Exercises for the lower back and hamstrings:
Good Mornings(see Appendix C)
Glute Ham Raise
High Repetition Deadlifts (done with glutes pushed to the rear, only lowered to
just below knee level)
Reverse Hyper Extensions
Exercises for the hamstrings:
Manual Hamstring Curl
Leg Curls (this is the least effective of the entire list)
Exercises for the Hip Flexors:
Ultra-Wide Sumo Deadlifts
Overhead Squats done to a low box with a sumo stance
Spread Eagle Sit Ups
Heavy Step Ups
Exercises for the Abdominals:
Weighted Sit Ups
Medicine Ball Throws on decline board
Standing Ab Pulldowns
Hanging Leg Raise
Exercises for the Obliques:
Weighted Side Bends
Weighted Sit Ups on decline board with twist
Exercises for the Quads:
Supertraining: Siff and Verkoshansky, 1999.
Physiology of Sport and Exercise, Wilmore and Costill, 1994. Human Kinetics.
Science and Practice of Strength Training, V. M. Zatsiorsky, 1995. Human
The Weightlifting Encyclopedia, A. Drechsler, 1998. A is A publications.
Gray???s Anatomy, H. Gray, 1998. House of Collectables.
The Training of the Weightlifter, R. A. Roman, 1988. Sportivny Press.
A System of Multi-Year Training in Weightlifting. A. S. Medvedyev, 1989.
Power: A Scientific Approach. F. C. Hatfield, 1989. Contemporary books.
Squatting, Westside Style, Dave Tate, 2000. Elite Fitness Systems.
Biomechanics of Sport. J. Garhammer, 1989. CRC Press.
Designing Resistance Training Programs. S. J. Fleck and W. J. Kraemer, 1987.
Weight Training: A Scientific Approach. M. H. Stone and H. S. O???Bryant, 1987.
Books and Courses
Recipe Cook Books